Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay on Vaccines The Best Choice for Our Children

There has long been a debate about whether or not parents should take part in the recommended vaccination schedule for their children. Many parents worry about what they do not know about the vaccines. This can include concepts such as what is in the vaccine and how the vaccines themselves, or giving multiple vaccines within a short span of time, affects their children. How combination vaccines such as DTAP and MMRV affect their children’s immune systems or other body systems could be another worry of parents. Today, newborns and young children are routinely vaccinated according to an immunization schedule established in 1995 by the CDC, AAP, and AAFP (Children’s, 2013). While the many benefits of immunizations are consistently†¦show more content†¦A number of combination vaccinations such as MMR, MMRV, and DTP have also been developed (Children’s, 2013; Klein et al., 2010). These allowed for children to be immunized against more diseases than the number of needle sticks they received. According to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (2013), with the addition of so many new vaccines, a young child’s immunization schedule has become significantly more complicated than it has ever been before. As reported by the CDC (2014), children from birth to 6 years of age receive vaccinations against at least ten different diseases, with some vaccinations requiring more than one administration in order to attempt to ensure full immunity. With this wide number of vaccinations, some given within seconds or minutes of each other and others having two or more vaccines mixed into one injection, the chance that adverse events could have a significantly negative impact on the young children receiving the vaccines is a definite possibility despite all of the research already conducted on vaccines and their safety (Ellenberg, 2001). The many benefits of immunizations have long been known. Before the creation of vaccinations, t he only way to develop immunity to a disease was to contract and survive it. In regard to the cost of vaccination versus that of treatment of an illness, according to the National Institute of Allergy andShow MoreRelatedVaccination Is The Best For A Parent Than The Health Of Their Child Essay1558 Words   |  7 Pagesparent. These diseases are vaccine-preventable, and are very rare thanks to successful vaccination programs. However, the number of parents refusing to vaccinate their children is on the rise, and is most likely the cause of the resurgence of these diseases (Phadke, Bednarcyzk, Salmon, Omer, 2016). Many medical professionals and scientists consider vaccination one of the greatest medical achievements in modern civilization. Research shows that vaccination is the best way to protect your child fromRead MoreWhy Vaccination Is Necessary For Our Public Health And Public Safety ( Plotkin 1-15 )1323 Words   |  6 Pagesdiscovering vaccines, to possibility cure or remove a disease. However, there are many concerns when it comes to vaccinations; are they okay for the body and/or will vaccines cause our bodies harm? Or are vaccines okay to get, and do they work? State laws are pushing to make vaccines a requirement. Because of these laws being passed, many argue that they are being forced in getting their children vaccinated. People should be able to have the freedom to choose if they want their children to be vaccinatedRead MoreThe Importance Of Securing Your Child Safe852 Words   |  4 Pageswhatever is best for your child. With that being said, you know the importance of securing your young child in a car seat, or installing baby gates in front of stairs and other ways to provide safety for your young child. Or protecting them from a common cold, a high fever, stomach flu, which affects our society and individuals when their immune system is compromised. Do you know that as parents you also choose a more complicated way of protecting your young child? This is through the choice of weatherRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Vaccination1119 Words   |  5 PagesJohn Caldwell Erik Bean ENG102 July 16, 2017 The Importance of Being Vaccinated It is human nature to want to understand the risks of vaccinations, especially when the benefits of that vaccine are invisible. It will never be known how many times people might be exposed to a vaccine-preventable disease, and how it could affect the immune system. There is sufficient data to help adults, and parents, weigh out the pros and cons of getting vaccinated. The benefits of preventing a disease with a vaccinationRead MoreChildhood Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory Essay1607 Words   |  7 Pagesthreats, there were 159 measles incidents arising from this occurrence (â€Å"Measles† 373). Considering this outbreak, it is not unexpected that the role of vaccination would come to the forefront. The CDC is presently advocating 29 vaccinations for children through the age of six years old (â€Å"2016 Recommended Immunizations† 1). However, each state respectively establishes the laws for vaccination and corresponding exemptions. For comparison purposes, in the earl y 1970’s, only three vaccinations wereRead MoreThe, Pro, And The Pro Choice1378 Words   |  6 Pages(CDC, 2016). The utilitarian approach is one that focuses on the net good created by a choice and uses that good to justify it as ethical (Sheng, 1991). There are two sides of this debate, the â€Å"pro-mandate† and the â€Å"pro-choice† and both will be discussed. I will argue using the pro-mandate utilitarian approach that all children, without medical exemption, should be required by the government to get the MMR vaccine, because vaccinations play a crucial role in public health and saving lives. FirstRead MoreThe Importance Of Vaccinations For Children With Added Protection803 Words   |  4 Pageswith infants and young children have been tussling with this proverbial question for several decades now. With the advent of the internet and the World Wide Web, parents have been bombarded with a plethora of information about pros and cons of vaccines from all kinds of sources, some creditable, and some are not. To the non-scientific community, these conflicting information can create problems in the decision making process; thus, forcing parents to make the wrong choices and putting their offspringRead MoreEssay Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory For All Children1534 Words   |  7 Pagesfirst set of vaccines, vaccines that people are now claiming are dangerous. Research shows that vaccination rates fell. MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella) vaccine rates dropped from 93.5% to 90.6%, tetanus, whooping cough and diphtheria rates dropped from 87.2% to 85.4% in 2009. (Kluger) Why are vaccination rates dropping so significantly? Pediatrician Dr. Robert Frenck says â€Å"Very articulate, very good-looking movie stars or personalities †¦ are giving out information about how bad vaccines are,† PeopleRead MoreShould Parents Have The Free Choice?983 Words   |  4 Pagesforcing American families to take vaccines against their will. Parents that do not take action and don’t provide their children with the â€Å"proper† vaccines can be fined or go to jail. This issue has been an ongoing problem, however, now in many states the government is not even allowing any type of exemption. I disagree with the government and I think that parents should have the free choice as to what vaccines they think is right for their children, being that vaccines don’t always work and they canRead MoreVaccination Informed Parental Choice : Vaccination Essay1614 Words   |  7 PagesVaccination†¦Informed Parental Choice The recent measles outbreak occurring at Disneyland in December 2014 became widespread news and rekindled an ongoing debate of childhood vaccination. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is the United States government agency responsible for the protection of Americans from health threats, there were 159 incidents of measles arising from this outbreak (â€Å"Morbidity and Mortality† 373). Considering this outbreak, it is not unexpected

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad Essay

The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad Dr. Frost’s comments: With his clear explanation, illustrative quotes, and logical organization, the student easily proves his thesis, recapped and affirmed very well in the final paragraph. From the first pages of Homer’s The Iliad, Achilles is portrayed as vengeful, proud, and petty. As the book progresses, the image of Achilles as a spiteful child is sharpened dramatically. Towards the end of the epic; however, Achilles begins to exhibit qualities that are considered heroic even in today’s society. Once his loyal and trusted friend Patroclus dies, Achilles undergoes a drastic change in character. When he confronts the true horror of death, Achilles puts aside his immature†¦show more content†¦Even this early in the epic, it is difficult to believe Achilles would ever settle for a long life without glory. Somewhat later in the epic; however, this is precisely what Achilles intends to do. When Agamemnon sends an embassy to entreat the swift runner, Achilles tells them: â€Å"...two fates bear me on to the day of death. If I hold out here and lay siege to Troy, My journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, My pride, my glory dies... True, but the life that’s left me will be long, The stroke of death will not come on me quickly.† (9.499-505) Achilles then proceeds to urge the rest of the Greeks to sail home and abandon the war in Troy. Although this seems to imply that Achilles has given up his youthful brashness, he also mercilessly insults Agamemnon in the same book. His refusal to let go of his anger and his concern for his own future indicate a more adolescent or young adult viewpoint, rather than his previous childishness. The three ambassadors, Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Phoenix, all appeal to Achilles to release his anger, implying that they look at him as a youth raging at worldly injustices. When Odysseus tells Achilles â€Å"Fail us now? What grief it will be to you / through all the years to come. No remedy, / no way to cure the damage once it’s done† (9.301-3), and when heShow MoreRelatedGreek Mythology8088 Words   |  33 Pages  Athena  ranked  as  one  of  the  most  powerful  goddesses  in  Greek   mythology.  Athena  (known  as  Minerva  in  Roman  mythology)  was  protector  of  numerous  Greek  cities,  especially   Athens,  and  was  associated  with  industry,  art,  wisdom,  and  warfare.  In  the  two  major  epics  of  Greek  antiquity,  the   Iliad  and  the  Odyssey,  Athena  fought  on  the  side  of  the  Greeks  in  the  Trojan  War   and  aided  Odysseus  in  his  return   home  from  the  war.  The  Greeks  dedicated  numerous  buildings  and  shrines  to  Athena,  including  the  prominent   temple  in  Athens,  the  ParthenonRead MoreEssay on The Odyssey21353 Words   |  86 Pageswife of Menelaus and the cause of the Trojan War. Helens portrayal is more striking than that of Menelaus. She is back with Menelaus at Sparta, happy and at peace, having learned from her sufferings. The tenderness which she possesses in The Iliad is turned to new purposes here in The Odyssey. Antinous - the most vociferous and proud of the suitors. He plots Telemachus death and often leads the suitors in their mistreatment of Odysseus and his household. Eurymachus - another outspoken

The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad Essay

The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad Dr. Frost’s comments: With his clear explanation, illustrative quotes, and logical organization, the student easily proves his thesis, recapped and affirmed very well in the final paragraph. From the first pages of Homer’s The Iliad, Achilles is portrayed as vengeful, proud, and petty. As the book progresses, the image of Achilles as a spiteful child is sharpened dramatically. Towards the end of the epic; however, Achilles begins to exhibit qualities that are considered heroic even in today’s society. Once his loyal and trusted friend Patroclus dies, Achilles undergoes a drastic change in character. When he confronts the true horror of death, Achilles puts aside his immature†¦show more content†¦Even this early in the epic, it is difficult to believe Achilles would ever settle for a long life without glory. Somewhat later in the epic; however, this is precisely what Achilles intends to do. When Agamemnon sends an embassy to entreat the swift runner, Achilles tells them: â€Å"...two fates bear me on to the day of death. If I hold out here and lay siege to Troy, My journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, My pride, my glory dies... True, but the life that’s left me will be long, The stroke of death will not come on me quickly.† (9.499-505) Achilles then proceeds to urge the rest of the Greeks to sail home and abandon the war in Troy. Although this seems to imply that Achilles has given up his youthful brashness, he also mercilessly insults Agamemnon in the same book. His refusal to let go of his anger and his concern for his own future indicate a more adolescent or young adult viewpoint, rather than his previous childishness. The three ambassadors, Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Phoenix, all appeal to Achilles to release his anger, implying that they look at him as a youth raging at worldly injustices. When Odysseus tells Achilles â€Å"Fail us now? What grief it will be to you / through all the years to come. No remedy, / no way to cure the damage once it’s done† (9.301-3), and when heShow MoreRelatedGreek Mythology8088 Words   |  33 Pages  Athena  ranked  as  one  of  the  most  powerful  goddesses  in  Greek   mythology.  Athena  (known  as  Minerva  in  Roman  mythology)  was  protector  of  numerous  Greek  cities,  especially   Athens,  and  was  associated  with  industry,  art,  wisdom,  and  warfare.  In  the  two  major  epics  of  Greek  antiquity,  the   Iliad  and  the  Odyssey,  Athena  fought  on  the  side  of  the  Greeks  in  the  Trojan  War   and  aided  Odysseus  in  his  return   home  from  the  war.  The  Greeks  dedicated  numerous  buildings  and  shrines  to  Athena,  including  the  prominent   temple  in  Athens,  the  ParthenonRead MoreEssay on The Odyssey21353 Words   |  86 Pageswife of Menelaus and the cause of the Trojan War. Helens portrayal is more striking than that of Menelaus. She is back with Menelaus at Sparta, happy and at peace, having learned from her sufferings. The tenderness which she possesses in The Iliad is turned to new purposes here in The Odyssey. Antinous - the most vociferous and proud of the suitors. He plots Telemachus death and often leads the suitors in their mistreatment of Odysseus and his household. Eurymachus - another outspoken

The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad Essay

The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad Dr. Frost’s comments: With his clear explanation, illustrative quotes, and logical organization, the student easily proves his thesis, recapped and affirmed very well in the final paragraph. From the first pages of Homer’s The Iliad, Achilles is portrayed as vengeful, proud, and petty. As the book progresses, the image of Achilles as a spiteful child is sharpened dramatically. Towards the end of the epic; however, Achilles begins to exhibit qualities that are considered heroic even in today’s society. Once his loyal and trusted friend Patroclus dies, Achilles undergoes a drastic change in character. When he confronts the true horror of death, Achilles puts aside his immature†¦show more content†¦Even this early in the epic, it is difficult to believe Achilles would ever settle for a long life without glory. Somewhat later in the epic; however, this is precisely what Achilles intends to do. When Agamemnon sends an embassy to entreat the swift runner, Achilles tells them: â€Å"...two fates bear me on to the day of death. If I hold out here and lay siege to Troy, My journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, My pride, my glory dies... True, but the life that’s left me will be long, The stroke of death will not come on me quickly.† (9.499-505) Achilles then proceeds to urge the rest of the Greeks to sail home and abandon the war in Troy. Although this seems to imply that Achilles has given up his youthful brashness, he also mercilessly insults Agamemnon in the same book. His refusal to let go of his anger and his concern for his own future indicate a more adolescent or young adult viewpoint, rather than his previous childishness. The three ambassadors, Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Phoenix, all appeal to Achilles to release his anger, implying that they look at him as a youth raging at worldly injustices. When Odysseus tells Achilles â€Å"Fail us now? What grief it will be to you / through all the years to come. No remedy, / no way to cure the damage once it’s done† (9.301-3), and when heShow MoreRelatedGreek Mythology8088 Words   |  33 Pages  Athena  ranked  as  one  of  the  most  powerful  goddesses  in  Greek   mythology.  Athena  (known  as  Minerva  in  Roman  mythology)  was  protector  of  numerous  Greek  cities,  especially   Athens,  and  was  associated  with  industry,  art,  wisdom,  and  warfare.  In  the  two  major  epics  of  Greek  antiquity,  the   Iliad  and  the  Odyssey,  Athena  fought  on  the  side  of  the  Greeks  in  the  Trojan  War   and  aided  Odysseus  in  his  return   home  from  the  war.  The  Greeks  dedicated  numerous  buildings  and  shrines  to  Athena,  including  the  prominent   temple  in  Athens,  the  ParthenonRead MoreEssay on The Odyssey21353 Words   |  86 Pageswife of Menelaus and the cause of the Trojan War. Helens portrayal is more striking than that of Menelaus. She is back with Menelaus at Sparta, happy and at peace, having learned from her sufferings. The tenderness which she possesses in The Iliad is turned to new purposes here in The Odyssey. Antinous - the most vociferous and proud of the suitors. He plots Telemachus death and often leads the suitors in their mistreatment of Odysseus and his household. Eurymachus - another outspoken

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Life and Music Free Essays

Music is as diverse as the people listening to its many different genres. My wife and I are just two of the millions of people around the world who listen to music almost everyday. However, my wife and I have a lot of differences when it comes to music although I can say that we share the same passion for it ever since when we were still at a young age. We will write a custom essay sample on Life and Music or any similar topic only for you Order Now For my part, learning music was at first an academic task because it was part of a class that I had to take during my earlier days in school. There was simply no chance for me to enjoy music as people should. When I was ten years old, I bought my first AM transistor from my classmate. It was the first time in my life when I got the chance to enjoy the music of the Beatles and other bands playing country music at the time. That moment in my life opened the windows of my imagination inasmuch as it sparked a great deal of musical interest on my part. From then on, I simply just could not have enough of music and I was stuck with the pleasure of listening to tunes over the radio. My wife has a strong cultural influence coming from the Philippines because she, too, is a Filipino. I recall my wife telling me that she always watched â€Å"An Evening with Pilita Corales† together with her parents when she was still young. Pilita Corales is considered as the Queen of â€Å"Kundiman†Ã¢â‚¬â€traditional love songs written and sung in Filipino language—in the Philippines. If my wife was fond of watching that show way back then, I was fond of watching â€Å"Lawrence Welk† on the television together with my father and mother. Apparently, our differences in our earliest exposures to music hold one reason why my wife and I still have differences today in terms of music. It is interesting to know that despite the fact that my wife lived in a country that is perhaps one of the most culturally rich countries in the world, she enjoyed spending time in the playground than doing folk dances which often involved materials that were indigenously available. Those dances, as she recounted, were always played to the rhythm of local music which, at that time in her life, never seemed important to her. She was too young in fact that she found it more fun to play in the school’s playground than to spend some of her idle time listening to local music and performing local dances. I had the same experience when I was still as young as my wife during her childhood days. The only difference, perhaps, was that I was doubly busy or I had a tougher time at school for I did not only have to learn English but I also had to study music as part of the school curriculum. I had to catch up with my school work and so I barely had the time to realize the pleasure of listening to music and enjoying what it had to offer beyond sensory experience. Today, things have changed a lot—and for the better. Fortunately, my wife and I soon learned and appreciated music in our lives. In fact, my wife and I began to watch musical plays like â€Å"Annie†, â€Å"The Lion King†, â€Å"Blue Man Group†, â€Å"Tarzan†, â€Å"Mama Mia† and â€Å"Miss Saigon† soon after we got married. Perhaps it was the moment in our lives when we realized that we shared one thing in common after all—the love for music. Each time we are able to watch a musical play, we always love the live performance due to the outpouring emotions that one can feel before a stage of actors and actresses giving justice to a number of different melodies and rhythms that can not be easily heard beyond every performance night. Max Weber understood music as â€Å"a deeply meaningful part of a society’s culture† (Turley, 2001, p. 635), which is perhaps why sooner or later people will begin to realize the importance or the role of music in their lives, regardless of whether or not the music they are listening to is indigenous or foreign. That being the case, it is easy to see why people can relate music; music touches our inner soul and reaches for the depths of our being that we oftentimes find difficult to express, let alone reach. For me, music helps us remember a lot of things simply because music holds memories. As I see it, music expresses feelings even if there are no words to it and it also raises our level of thinking about freedom. Howard Gardner even categorized our abilities to appreciate and even produce music as part of multiple human intelligences (Pfeifer Scheier, 1999), which makes sense to say that it is crucial for human beings to have an ear for music. Doing so can broaden our mental horizons and enable us to appreciate life even more. While my wife enjoys listening to the music of the Monkees, Carpenters, Beatles and Michael Jackson as much as I do, I still try to go beyond the sheer pleasure of listening to their music. I teach art and I try to incorporate music into my profession. As much as possible, I try to play music whenever I have my art class so that my students will be able to express their feelings more whenever they hold their brushes and begin painting images with beautiful colors. The way I see it, music is so strong it can evoke our inner feelings and give us the inspiration to make stunning artworks. Because music can stir our emotions and our memories, music can push art students and artists to greater lengths. In general, music helps people unlock the rarely touched parts of their being (Grant, 2003, p. 173). I cannot imagine my life and my wife’s life without music as it has already been an integral part of who we are. Music helps my wife and I remember a lot of things about our past and our culture. It also helps us appreciate our lives and our marriage better each day without having the need to force ourselves to listen to music. How to cite Life and Music, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

World War I Essays - World War I, French Third Republic,

World War I The Causes of the War OK, in a nutshell, World War I's cause went as far back as the early 1800s. People controlled by other nations began to evolve people's feelings of nationalism. The French Revolution of 1789 brought a new feeling to the word Nationalism. People who spoke French, German, Italian, ext. felt that they should have a separate government in a country where everyone spoke the same language. Unfortunately, we can't please everyone and this demand they had was something impossible that could be done. As time passed people began to establish war cults or military alliances. The members from these groups would discriminate and verbally abuse the people, which didn't speak their language. Warmongers criticized at foreign ways of doing things. Sometimes newspaper stories help spread publicity. Some German leaders strongly urged commercial & political expansion to the east, mostly in Asia. II- Military Alliances Military alliances were another of the many causes of World War I. When the German Empire was united in 1871, Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck hoped for a period of international peace. He looked for allies to support Germany. It was then that in 1882 Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy signed a treaty called, " The Triple Alliance." The treaty was made to protect them from attacks from France or Russia. Germany & Italy feared France & Austria-Hungary feared Russia. The three members of the alliance formed a powerful block in central Europe. Unfortunately, Austria-Hungary & Italy were not very friendly. They argued mostly over land and/or territory that Italy thought they should have. So, both countries competed to see who would take control of the Adriatic Sea first. When the war broke out in 1914, Italy didn't keep their word about the contract they had agreed to in the treaty. It turns out they had made a secret treaty with France in 1902. As a result of that they had to remain neutral then declared war on Austria-Hungary. After the Triple Alliance formed, the rest of the countries in Europe saw that they were at a disadvantage. The disadvantage was that if there ever was an international crisis, Great Britain, France & Russia would have to fight for themselves but the Triple Alliance would have the advantage of acting together as one. Then in 1894, France signed a defensive alliance with Russia. Then only by itself was Great Britain. Soon after they faced naval rivalry & growing mercenary with Germany. In 1904, Great Britain & France reached a cordial understanding or how you would say in French, "Entente Cordial." By the terms in the agreement, they settled all the disagreements they had about almost anything & everything. Most important being colonies. Both nations became partners. Then France succeeded in bringing Britain and Russia together. In 1907 the two nations signed the Anglo-Russian Entente," it was kind of like the cordial agreement that linked France, Russia & Great Britain was called "The Triple Entente." Men, Battlefronts & Strategy I- Strategy of the War The chief of the German general staff Count Alfred Von Schlieffen planned a very little simple strategy in 1905 and changed it in 1912. His plan was that German armies were to crush France in a campaign by going through Belgium, which was neutral. Now, the Germans were planning to crush Russia, then planned to make Britain surrender. Then they would sweep into Asia & yes, they would try and conquer them too. This guy expected a 2 front war & planned that Austria-Hungary and some small German force in East Prussia would take the eastern front. But no. The Allied strategy called for attacks by the French armies in Lorraine upon the start of the war. OK, so the plan was that. On the Eastern front it would be Russia trying to invade Germany through East Prussia and attack Austria-Hungary in Galicia. They hoped to strike westward at Germany while the Allied Armies went east. The War I- The US enters WWI (1917, 4th year) Early in 1917, the Central Powers, which consisted of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany & the Ottoman Empire, were at a strong position. They had in control Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, most of Belgium & Northern France. Then, yes, the USA entered the war. And so the tables began to turn in favor of the Allies. Germany unrestricted Submarine welfare so this caused the US to join the Allies. The news of the outbreak of the war in 1914 had surprised many Americans. As a result, President Woodrow Wilson had declared that "the US would

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Management Specification Essay Example

Management Specification Essay Example Management Specification Essay Management Specification Essay Essay Topic: Self Reliance ATHE Level 5 Qualifications in Management ATHE Level 5 Certificate in Management (QCF) ATHE Level 5 Diploma in Management (QCF) ATHE Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management (QCF)  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification March 2012 About ATHE An Ofqual regulated awarding organisation, providing QCF qualifications in management, health social care management and travel tourism management. We are known for our excellent customer service, efficient support and flexible qualifications that offer diverse progression routes. Our Qualifications Our management qualifications are the culmination of expert input from colleges, sector skills councils, industry professionals and our qualification development team. We have taken advantage of the flexibility of the QCF to develop a suite of awards, certificates and diplomas that offer progression from level 4 up to level 7. Key features of the qualifications include: ? core units that are common to different sectors offering the opportunity for learners to move between sectors or delay decisions as to which area to specialise in ? mall qualifications that can be used for professional development for those in employment or for learners who do not have the time to undertake a full time programme ? flexible methods of assessment allowing tutors to select the most appropriate methods for their learners. Support for Centres We are committed to supporting our centres and offer a range of training, support and consultancy services including: ? qualification guidance, suggested resources and sample assignments ? an ATHE centre support officer who guides you through the centre recognition process, learner registration and learner results submission ealth check visits to highlight any areas for development ? an allocated ATHE associate for advice on delivery, assessment and verification. 1  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Contents About ATHE . 1 Our Qualifications .. Support for Centres .. 1 ATHE QCF Qualifications at Level 5 in this Specification . 3 Accreditation Dates . Entry Requirements . 3 Introduction to ATHE’s Level 5 QCF Qualifications in Management .. 4 Certificate.. Diploma.. 4 Support and Recognition .. 4 National Occupational Standards . Progression.. 4 Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) .. 5 Support for ATHE Qualifications Credit values and rules of combination . 5 Unit Specifications .. 12 Unit Format 2 5. 5 Managing Communication . 13 5. 2 Business Organisations in a Global Context . 16 5. 3 People Management . 2 0 4. Finance for Managers .. 24 5. 4 Research project . 28 6. 11 Managing Stakeholder Engagement .. 1 6. 4 Risk Management .. 35 6. 10 Leading Organisational Equality and Diversity . 39 4. 6 Corporate Social Responsibility .. 42 5. Manage Sustainability in an Organisation 46 4. 2 Resource Management 49 4. 7 Administrative Services 53 4. Planning a Work Based Team Project . 57 5. 6 Marketing Principles and Practice . 61 4. 10 Planning a New Business Venture .. 65 4. 11 Customer Relationship Management .. . 67 5. 7 Employability Skills . 72 5. 9 Personal and Professional Development 79 5. 10 Business Law . 83 2  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 ATHE QCF Qualifications at Level 5 in this Specification This document provides key information on ATHE’s suite of Level 5 QCF qualifications in Management, including the rules of combination, the content of all the units and guidance on assessment and curriculum planning. It should be used in conjunction with the ATHE handbook â€Å"Delivering ATHE Qualifications†. Further guidance on resources and assessment is provided separately. These qualifications have been accredited to the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF). Each qualification has a Qualification Accreditation Number (QAN). This number will appear on the learner’s final certification documentation. Each unit within a qualification also has a QCF code. The QAN numbers for these qualifications are as follows: ATHE Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management (QCF) 600/4375/1 ATHE Level 5 Diploma in Management (QCF) 600/4374/X ATHE Level 5 Certificate in Management (QCF) 600/4373/8 Accreditation Dates These qualifications are accredited from 1st February 2012 which is their operational start date in centres. Entry Requirements These qualifications are designed for learners from aged 19 and above. However, ATHE does not specify any entry requirements. Centres are required to ensure that learners who register for these qualifications have the necessary skills to undertake the learning and assessment. 3  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Introduction to ATHE’s Level 5 QCF Qualifications in Management Our new qualifications in Management at Level 5 have been developed to conform to the requirements of the QCF, to meet the requirements of the sector and to respond to the needs of our centres. These qualifications provide generic management skills for those planning to or working in a management role. The qualifications deliver the skills and knowledge that meet the needs of managers on a domestic and international platform. We provide a flexible route for learners who have already achieved management qualifications at a lower level and for learners who do not have management qualifications, but may have qualifications in other areas and/or prior experience the work place. Our suite of qualifications is designed to provide: ? maximum flexibility with different sized level 5 qualifications for those who only wish or have the time to initially take smaller qualifications and then build up qualifications over ti me ? pportunities for learners to develop knowledge and skills, personal qualities and attitudes essential for successful performance in working life ? optional units in particular specialisms that are directly related to learners’ current responsibilities or that meet a particular interest and support career development ? opportunities for learners who wish to underta ke a full time course of study leading to an Extended Diploma. Certificate Our Certificate allows learners to develop some of the key skills they need to work in a management role with a mandatory unit and a choice of options. Diploma Our Diplomas allows learners to develop the key skills they need to work in a management role with a number of mandatory units together with a choice of options. Support and Recognition These qualifications have been developed with the support of centres who are currently delivering qualifications at this level in Management or who plan to do so in the future. National Occupational Standards The ATHE Level 5 qualifications in Management provide much of the underpinning knowledge and understanding for the National Occupational Standards in Management and Leadership. Progression On successful completion of a Level 5 qualification in Management there are a number of progression opportunities. Learners may progress to: ? larger qualifications at the same level e. g. from a Certificate to the Diploma or Extended Diploma in Management or a related qualification, for example the Diploma in Management for Health and Social Care ? a degree programme in a higher education institution and claim exemptions for some of the units completed. 4  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) The QCF is based on the principle of credit accumulation and transfer. Within this suite of qualifications, learners have the opportunity to build their achievements from a single unit into a full Diploma. There will be occasions where learners wish to claim recognition of prior learning which has not been formally assessed and accredited. Centres should contact ATHE to discuss the requirements for RPL. Support for ATHE Qualifications ATHE provides a wide range of support. This includes: ? materials on our website to support assessment and teaching and learning ? raining events to support the delivery of the qualifications and assessment ? the services of a team of experienced advisors and external verifiers ? support for business development. Credit values and rules of combination The QCF is a framework which awards credit for qualifications and units and aims to present qualifications in a way that is easy to understand and measure. There are three sizes of qualification in the QCF : ? Award, between 1 and 12 credits ? Certificate, between 13 and 36 credits ? Diploma, 37 credits and above. Each unit within a qualification has a credit value and a level. The credit value specifies the number of credits that will be awarded to a learner who has achieved the lea rning outcomes of a unit. The level is an indication of relative demand, complexity and depth of achievement and autonomy. Each credit represents 10 hours of learning time. The learning time is a notional measure which indicates the amount of time a learner at the level of the unit is expected to take, on average, to complete the learning outcomes of the unit to the standard determined by the assessment criteria. Learning time includes activities such as directed study, assessment, tutorials, mentorin g and individual private study. The credit value of the unit will remain constant in all contexts regardless of the assessment method or the mode of delivery. Learners will only be awarded credits for the successful completion of whole units. Each unit also contains information on guided learning hours (GLH). GLH are intended to provide guidance for centres on the amount of resource needed to deliver the programme and support learners i. e. he time required for face to face delivery, tutorials, workshops and associated assessments. Each qualification has agreed rules of combination which indicate the number of credits to be achieved, which units are mandatory and the choice of optional units. The rule of combination for each qualification is given below. 5  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 ATHE Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management The ATHE Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management is a 120 credit qualification. Learners must complete five mandatory units and three or four optional units. Unit Title Level Credit GLH Managing Communication 5 15 60 Business Organisations in a Global Context 5 15 60 People Management 5 15 60 Finance For Managers 4 15 60 Research Project 5 20 80 Mandatory units Optional units Learners must complete a further 3 or 4 units from the list below to achieve a minimum of 120 credits for the Diploma. Managing Stakeholder Engagement 6 10 40 Risk Management 6 10 40 Leading Organisational Equality and Diversity 6 10 40 Corporate Social Responsibility 4 15 60 Manage Sustainability in an Organisation 5 15 60 Resource Management 4 15 60 Administrative Services 15 60 Planning a Work Based Team Project 4 15 60 Marketing Principles and Practice 5 15 60 Planning a New Business Venture 4 15 60 Customer Relationship Management 4 15 60 Employability Skills 5 15 60 Business Ethics 5 15 60 Personal and Professional Development 5 15 60 Business Law 5 15 60 6  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 ATHE Level 5 Diploma in Management The ATHE Level 5 D iploma in Management is a 60 credit qualification. Learners must complete three mandatory units and one optional unit. Unit Title Level Credit GLH Managing Communication 5 15 60 Business Organisations in a Global Context 5 15 60 People Management 5 15 60 Mandatory units Optional Units Learners must complete a further 1 unit from the list below to achieve a minimum of 60 credits for the Diploma. Corporate Social Responsibility 4 15 60 Resource Management 4 15 60 Administrative Services 4 15 60 Planning a Work Based Team Project 4 15 60 Finance For Managers 4 15 60 Planning a New Business Venture 4 15 60 Customer Relationship Management 4 15 60 Manage Sustainability in an Organisation 5 15 60 Marketing Principles and Practice 5 15 60 Employability Skills 5 15 60 Business Ethics 5 15 60 Personal and Professional Development 5 15 60 Business Law 5 15 60 ATHE Level 5 Certificate in Management The ATHE Level 5 Certificate in Management is a 30 credit qualification. Learners must complete two of the three units listed below. Unit Title Managing Communication Business Organisations in a Global Context Level 5 5 Credit 15 15 GLH 60 60 People Management 5 15 60 7  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Guidance on Assessment For all ATHE qualifications assessment is completed through the submission of internally assessed student work. To achieve a pass for a unit, a learner must have successfully achieved all the assessment criteria for that unit. There are no externally set written examinations attached to any unit. However, learners taking the Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management will be required to complete a research project. ATHE will provide a sample assignment for each unit which can be used as the assessment for the unit. We would encourage our centres to develop their own assessment strategies so you have the opportunity to put assignments in a context that is appropriate for your learners. Any assignments that you devise will need to be submitted to ATHE for approval before delivery of the programme. Centres can submit assignments for approval using the ‘Centre -Devised Assignment’ template documentation available on the ATHE website. An assignment can relate to a single unit. Alternatively you may incorporate more than one unit in an integrated assignment provided the content of the assignment is clearly mapped to show which assessment criteria from which units are being covered. Methods of Assessment ATHE encourages the use of a range of assessment strategies that will engage learners and give them an opportunity to both demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of a topic and to evaluate how they might apply that knowledge in a given context. We would recommend avoiding an over-reliance on essay writing and that more varied types of assessment are included. This might include assessment through: ? ? ? ? ? ? a research activity resulting in the compilation of a report an academic paper or article for publication the compilation of a case study critical review and evaluation of a chosen company’s policies, procedures and systems a set project completed for an employer (also known as an ‘employer-engagement’ activity) the production of a portfolio of evidence relating to a particular unit. This list is by no means exhaustive, but gives examples of some creative assessment methods that could be adopted. Putting an Assessment Strategy in Place You will need to demonstrate to your External Verifier that you have a clear assessment strategy supported by robust quality assurance in order to meet the ATHE requirements for registering learners for a qualification. In devising your assessment strategy, you will need to e nsure: ? ? ? devised assignments are clearly mapped to the unit learning outcomes and assessment criteria they have been designed to meet that the command verbs used in the assignment are appropriate for the level of the qualification, e. g. analyse, evaluate that the assignment gives the learner sufficient opportunity to meet the assessment criteria at the right level, through the work they are asked to complete. (The QCF level descriptors will be helpful to you in determining the level of content of the assessment) 8  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? students are well-briefed on the requirements of the unit and what they have to do to meet them assessors are well trained and familiar with the content of the unit/s they are assessing there is an internal verification process in place to ensure consistency and standardisation of assessment across the qualification assessment decisions are clearly explained and justified through the provision of feedback to the learner that work submitted can be authenticated as the learner’s own work and that the re is clear guidance on the centre’s Malpractice Policy hat there is an assessment plan in place identifying dates for summative assessment of each unit and indicating when external verification will be needed sufficient time is included in the assessment planning to allow the learners time for any necessary remedial work that may be needed prior to certification. Quality Assurance of Centres Centres delivering ATHE QC F qualifications must be committed to ensuring the quality of the assessment of all the units they deliver, through effective standardisation of assessors and verification of assessor decisions. ATHE will rigorously monitor the application of quality assurance processes in centres. ATHE’s quality assurance processes will involve: ? centre approval for those centres who are not already recognised to deliver ATHE qualifications ? approval to offer ATHE QCF qualifications and units in Management at Level 5. Once a centre registers learners for a qualification, they will be allocated an Ext ernal Verifier who will visit at an early stage in the programme to ensure that an appropriate assessment plan is in place. Centres will be required to undertake training and standardisation activities as agreed with ATHE. Details of ATHE’s quality assurance processes are provided in the ATHE Guide: â€Å"Delivering ATHE Qualifications† which is available on our website. Malpractice Centres must have a robust Malpractice Policy in place, with a clear procedure for implementation. Centres must ensure that any work submitted for verification can be authenticated as the learner’s own. Any instance of plagiarism detected by the External Verifier during sampling, will result in the entire cohort being rejected. Centres should refer to the ATHE Malpractice Policy on the ATHE website. 9  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Guidance for Teaching and Learning Within the support materials for some of the units you will find suggestions and ideas for teaching and learning activities which we hope will be helpful in getting centre practitioners started with schemes of work and session plans. You can adapt these ideas to suit your own context and the interests of your students. Learners learn best when they are actively involved in the learning process. We would encourage practitioners delivering our qualifications to use a range of teaching methods and classroom -based activities to help them get information across and keep learners engaged in the topics they are learning about. Learners should be encouraged to take responsibility for their learning and should be able to demonstrate a high degree of independence in applying the skills of research and evaluation. You can facilitate this by using engaging methods of delivery that involve active learning rather than relying on traditional methods of lecture delivery to impart knowledge. Your approach to delivery should give the learners sufficient structure and information on which to build without you doing the work for them. In achieving the right balance you will need to produce well-planned sessions that follow a logical sequence. Top Tips for Delivery ? Adopt a range of teaching and learning methods, including active learning. ? Plan sessions well to ensure a logical sequence of skills development. ? Include study skills aspects, e. g. how to construct a report or Harvard Referencing. Build time into your Scheme of Work and Session Plans to integrate study skills teaching. Set structured additional reading and homework tasks to be discussed in class. ? Elicit feedback from your students. Get them to identify where the work they have done meets the assessment criteria. ? Contextualise your activities, e. g. use real case studies as a theme through the sessions. ? Take an integrated approach to teaching topics across units, where appropriate, rather than always t aking a unit-by-unit approach. In this way, learners will be able to see the links between the content of the different units. There is further guidance on teaching and learning in the support materials. Resources ATHE has provided a list of suggested resources for each unit. Please refer to the support materials for each unit on our website by logging into the ATHE portal with your given login details. Access and Recruitment ATHE’s policy with regard to access to its qualifications is that: ? they should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required standard ? they should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression ? there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications. Centres are required to recruit learners to ATHE qualifications with integrity. This will include ensuring that all learners have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications. Centres should put in place appropriate systems to assess a learner’s suitability for a programme and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully achieve the designated qualification. This assessment should take account of any support available to the learner within 10  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 the centre during the programme of study and any support that may be required to allow the learner to access the assessment for the units within the qualification. Access Arrangements and Special Considerations ATHE’s policy on access arrangements and special consideration aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and other difficulties (as defined by the E quality Act 2010) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge and understanding. Further details are given in the Reasonable Adjustments and Special Considerations Policy, which can be found on our website. Restrictions on Learner Entry The ATHE Level 5 qualifications in Management are accredited on the QCF fo r learners aged 19 and above. 11  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Unit Specifications Unit Format Each unit in ATHE’s suite of level 5 qualifications is presented in a standard format. This format provides guidance on the requirements of the unit for learners, tutors, assessors and external verifiers. Each unit has the following sections: Unit Title The unit title reflects the content of the unit. The title of each unit completed will appear on a learner’s statement of results. Unit Aims The unit aims section summarises the content of the unit. Unit Code Each unit is assigned a QCF unit code that appears with the unit title on the Register of Regulated Qualifications. QCF Level All units and qualifications in the QCF have a level assigned to them which represents the level of achievement. The level of each unit is informed by the QCF level descriptors. The QCF level descriptors are available on the ATHE website. Credit value The credit value is the number of credits that may be awarded to a learner for the successful achievement of the learning outcomes of a unit. Guided Learning Hours (GLH) Guided learning hours are an indicative guide to the amount of input that a tutor will provide to a learner, to enable them to complete the unit. This includes lectures, tutorials and workshops and time spent by staff assessing learners’ achievement when they are present. Learning Outcomes The learning outcomes set out what a learner is expected to know, understand or be able to do as the result of the learning process. Assessment Criteria The assessment criteria describe the requirements a learner is expected to meet in order to demonstrate that the learning outcome has been achieved. Command verbs reflect the level of the qualification e. g. at level 5 you would see words such as analyse and evaluate Unit Indicative Content The unit indicative content section provides details of the range of subject material for the programme of learning for the unit. 12  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 5. 5 Managing Communication Unit aims This unit aims to develop knowledge and understanding of how communication takes place within and between organisations, the potential pitfalls and the benefits of good practice. Unit level 5 Unit code D/503/7074 GLH 60 Credit value 15 Unit grading Pass structure Assessment Assignments in accordance with awarding organisation guidance. The guidance earners will carry out a review of communication within an organisation. Learning outcomes. Assessment criteria. The learner will: The learner can: 1. Understand how information and 1. 1 Analyse key information and knowledge knowledge is communicated within an requirements for a range of stakeholders organisation within different organisations 1. 2 Explain the systems used for communicating key information and knowledge to stakeholders 1. 3 Analyse potential barriers to effective workplace communication 2. Understand factors that impact on 2. 1 Evaluate how communication is influenced workplace communication y values and cultural factors 2. 2 Explain how technology can be used to benefit as well as hinder the communication process 2. 3 Explain how policies and procedures can impact on the communication processes 3. Be able to promote effective 3. 1 Evaluate the effectiveness of own interpersonal communication communication skills 3. 2 Apply theories of interpersonal communication to oneself 3. 3 Request feedback from others on own interpersonal communication skills 3. 4 Plan own personal development to improve own communication skills, based on feedback from others 4. Be able to review communication 4. 1 Carry out a communications audit ithin an organisation 4. 2 Apply theories of organisational communication 4. 3 Create a plan to improve workplace communications 4. 4 Identify measures t o evaluate the success of the plan to improve workplace communications 13  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Indicative Content 1. Understand how information and knowledge is communicated within an organisation Key information and knowledge requirements ? Company performance e. g. financial data, sales figures, regional differences ? Staff information e. g. numbers, salaries, appraisal information, training and CPD needs ? Product knowledge e. . components, how they are produced ? how to carry out roles, professional knowledge, sources of ‘know-how’ ? Stakeholders e. g. shareholders, board members, directors, senior managers, operatives Communication systems ? Meetings, briefings (whole staff, departmental, individual) ? Presentations ? Email ? Newsletters ? Interviews, appraisals ? Literature e. g. manuals, booklets, notices ? Training sessions ? Letters Potential barriers ? Verbal communication – tone, clarity, active listening and f ocusing ? Clarity of written message – readability, language, tone ? Technology – poor connections, inappropriate use Interpersonal relationships – personal conflict ? Non-verbal communication – body language ? Equality and diversity, pre-judgements, assumptions 2. Understand factors that impact on workplace communication Values and cultural factors ? Language ? Customs ? ‘Saving face’ Use of technology Help ? To reinforce spoken message, to remind, to ensure written record ? To provide additional/visual information e. g. graphs, presentation software/slides ? Speed and efficiency Hinder ? Inappropriate/overuse of email ? ‘Death by PowerPoint’ ? Overreliance e. g. instead of face to face, in event of technology failure 14  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Policies and procedures ? Legislation ? Charters ? Codes of practice 3. Be able to promote effective interpersonal communication Effectiveness of own communication skills ? Ability to contribute to meetings ? Use of body language ? Written communication skills ? Use of ICT Theories of interpersonal communication ? Attribution theory, expectancy value model, uncertainty reduction model, social network theory Feedback from others ? Written, oral ? Formal, informal Plan own person development ? SMART Targets ? Oral, written, electronic communication ? At meetings, presentations, etc. Formal and informal ? Feedback from colleagues and managers 4. Be able to review communication within an organisation Communications audit ? Communications systems and processes ? Policies and procedures Theories of organisational communication ? E. g. Attraction –selection-attrition framework, contingency theories, groupthink, social network theory Improve workplace communications ? Plan – carry out analysis and act on the results ? Consensus ? Survey ? Training ? Feedback Measures to evaluate ? Improved performance e. g. sales figures ? Increased staff retention e. g. staff turnover ? Increased motivation e. . productivity 15  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 5. 2 Business Organisations in a Global Context Unit aims This unit aims to develop learners understanding of the issues organisations face operating within a global context. This understanding will allow learners to review the issues currently impacting on businesses. Unit level Unit code GLH Credit value Unit grading structure Assessment guidance 5 D/503/7088 60 15 Pass Assignments in accordance with awarding organisation guidance. Learners will base some of their work around businesses in a chosen national context. Learning outcomes. Assessment criteria. The learner will: The learner can: 1. Understand the key differences between 1. 1 Analyse the key differences between global business operations organisations working in different sectors, industries and contexts 1. 2 Assess the responsibilities of organisations operating globally 1. 3 Evaluate strategies employed by organisations operating globally 2. Understand the impact of external factors 2. 1 Analyse how performance of national on organisations economy impacts on the activities of business organisations 2. 2 Explain the measures taken by governments to influence the activities of usiness organisations 3. Understand the impact of the global factors 3. 1 Explain the implications of global on business organisations integration on business organisations 3. 2 Assess the effect of international trade on domestic products and services 3. 3 Review the impact of the global economy on businesses 3. 4 Assess how ICT technologies have facilitated globalisation 4. Be ab le to review current issues impacting 4. 1 Carry out a review of the global on business activities environment in which businesses are currently operating 4. 2 Propose strategies to address issues affecting business activities 16  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Indicative Content 1. Understand the key differences between global business operations Key differences ? Legal status/ownership – e. g. sole trader, partnership, company, corporation (e. g. limited and unlimited, public limited and international equivalents) ? Structure and size ? What they offer (Products and/or services) ? Image Different sectors/industries e. g. ? Private e. g. manufacturing, service e. g. hospitality, finance ? Public e. g. healthcare, education ? ‘Not for profit’ e. g. supporting others, conservation and heritage organisations, campaign groups Global context ? International ? National ? Local Organisational responsibilities ? To shareholders ? To employees ? To other stakeholders ? To customers ? To the environment ? Ethical issues Organisational strategies ? Human resources policy ? Environmental strategy ? Equal opportunities policy ? Ethics policy ? Financial plan ? International partnering policy ? Electronic modes of marketing and communication ? Reliable import and export processes 2. Understand the impact of external factors on organisations UK economy ? Size – population, labour market, education/training levels ? Growth/wealth gross national product (GNP), balance of payments, inflation rates, government borrowing, trade balance, public finances, taxation, national debt, availability of credit ? Business confidence – investing, cost of borrowing, consumer buying/confidence, government policies 17  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Government policies ? Monetary policies, interest rates, quantative easing, unemployment ? Fiscal policies, spending (in central and local government), public sector borrowing, controlling demand, taxation, distribution of income ? Competition Policy Sector regulation e. g. in UK OfGem, OfQual, OfGas, CAA, OfCom –equivalents in other countries and globally where applicable ? Regional policies ? Skills agenda, apprenticeships 3. Understand the impact of the global factors on business organisations Global integration ? Trading blocs ? World Bank, IMF, Global/trading bloc policies and directives (e. g. other relevant organisat ions ? Market size ? Transnational corporations EU), G20, OPEC and International trade ? Opportunities e. g. emerging markets ? Growth ? Protectionism ? Trading blocs, partnerships and agreements and their regulation/restrictions (e. . EU) ? Trade duties and tariffs Impact ? Increased competition ? Outsourcing to other countries ? Increased customer choice ? Increased need for innovation ICT technologies ? Remote workforce – advantages of being able to locate workforce in other countries where labour may be cheaper/may have more relevant skills etc. ? The role of the internet in trade ? Easy communication e. g. Skype, email, social networking 4. Be able to review current issues impacting on business activities A review ? Domestic market in chosen country ? Global market ? Domestic and global policies ? Other global factors government policies ? Trade blocs Strategies 18  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 ? ? ? ? ? ? New markets New environments e. g. move business New technologies Growth/shrink Change of suppliers, importers, exporters Change in business structure e. g. from sole trader to company/ corporation 19  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 5. 3 People Management Unit aims In this unit learners develop the knowledge and understanding of what motivates individuals and teams and use this to review people management strategies used in organisations. Learners will gain an understanding of leadership theories, motivational theories, the impact of structure and culture as well as other tools that can be used to empower people in the workplace. Unit level 5 Unit code Y/503/7073 GLH 60 Credit value 15 Unit grading Pass structure Assessment Assignment according to awarding organisation guidance. guidance Learning outcomes. Assessment criteria. The learner will: The learner can: 1. Understand how structure and culture 1. 1 Explain how organisational structure impacts on impact on people in organisations on people in organisations 1. 2 Analyse how organisational culture impacts on n people in organisations 2. Understand approaches to managing 2. 1 Explain how personal differences impact on on the differences between individuals’ behaviours at work individuals that impact on their 2. 2 Analyse the management styles needed to performance at work deal with differences in behaviours 3. Understand the organisational factors 3. 1 Analy se the effect of leadership styles on that impact on people performance individuals and teams 3. 2 Explain the benefits of flexible working practices to individuals and organisations 3. 3 using motivational theories, assess how the orking environment impacts on people performance 3. 4 Assess how an organisation’s ethical practices impact on motivation levels 3. 5 Evaluate how organisations use their corporate social responsibility agenda to motivate employees 4. Understand methods for developing 4. 1 Explain how motivation theories can be applied human resources to developing people in organisations 4. 2 Explain the different uses of coaching and mentoring in organisations 4. 3 Analyse the benefits of training and development to individuals and organisations 5. Be able to review how people are 5. 1 Review people management strategies used in anaged within organisations an organisation 5. 2 Assess the impact on people of management strategies used in organisations 5. 2 Recomme nd strategies to promote high levels of performance 20  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Indicative Content 1. Understand how structure and culture impact on people in organisations Structure ? Hierarchical ? Flat/tall ? Matrix ? Inverted triangle ? Functional ? Product, market and geographical structures Culture ? ‘The way we do things’ ? Assumptions ? Behaviours ? Values ? Codes ? Stories, myths ? Ceremonies and rituals ? Working practices Impacts ? Power/influence of individuals ? Power/influence of teams ? Leadership power/influence (span of control) ? Communication channels, ease of communication ? Motivation levels ? Creativity ? Confused reporting lines 2. Understand approaches to managing the differences between individuals that impact on their performance at work Differences in ? Knowledge, skills and experience ? Attitude ? Personality ? Attitude ? Perception ? Opinion ? Culture ? Religion and beliefs Management styles to suit different behaviours ? Theory x and theory Y ? Self-fulfilling prophecy ? The Hawthorne studies 3. Understand the organisational factors that impact on people performance 21  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Leadership styles and theories ? Trait theories ? Behavioural approach ? Contingency approach ? Autocratic/democratic/laissez faire ? Hersey and Blanchard Situational theory ? Charismatic leadership ? Tannenbaum and Schmidt Effect of leadership styles on ? Motivation ? Creativity ? Flexibility ? Credibility ? Trust and respect ? Productivity ? Commitment Benefits of flexible working practices .. to employees ? Levels of autonomy, empowerment, trust ? Productivity Quality of life .. to organisations ? Motivational ? Productivity ? Need for facilities and systems Motivational theories ? Hawthorne studies ? Maslow hierarchy of needs ? Herzberg hygiene factors and motivators ? Reiss Theory Ethical practices ? Scrutiny of suppliers ? Distribution techniques ? Customer relationship management ? Selling practices ? Staff development Corporate Social Res ponsibility (CSR) Agenda ? Developing the workforce ? Supporting the community ? Providing work experience placements ? Mentoring and coaching ? Supporting career progression, providing opportunities ? Environmental policy Employment practices e. g. disability 22  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 4. Understand methods for developing human resources Developing people ? Empowerment, self-actualisation, theory x Uses of coaching and mentoring ? Talent pools ? Developing skill and confidence ? Poor performance, disciplinary issues ? Re-engaging in the workforce Benefits of training and development Individuals ? Self-actualisation, developing potential ? Increased motivation ? Developing talent ? Promotion/enhanced pay Organisations ? Increased productivity ? Workforce retention ? Enhanced profit ? Legal compliance . Be able to review how people are managed within organisations People management strategies ? Working environment ? Leadership style ? Structure ? Culture ? Staff development opportunities ? Flexible working practices ? Ethical practices ? CSR agenda Impacts on: ? Individuals/teams ? Performance ? Staff retention ? Employee satisfaction Strategies for promotion of performance ? Incentives, bonus schemes, incremental rises, improved job satisfaction ? For organisational improvement ? For organisational productivity ? For self-improvement 23  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 4. Finance for Managers Unit aims To introduce learners to practical accounting and financial techniqu es that are useful to managers in business organisations. Unit level 4 24  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Unit code M/503/7080 GLH 60 Credit value 15 Unit grading Pass structure Assessment Assignment according to awarding organisation guidance. guidance Learning outcomes. Assessment criteria. The learner will: The learner can: 1. Understand the requirements and 1. 1 Explain the purpose and requir ement for techniques for financial recording keeping financial records and reporting 1. Analyse techniques for recording financial information in a business organisation 1. 3 Analyse the legal and organisational requirements for financial reporting 1. 4 Evaluate the usefulness of financial statements to stakeholders 2. Understand how working capital 2. 1 Analyse components of working capital can be effectively managed 2. 2 Explain how business organisations can effectively manage working capital 3. Understand management 3. 1 Explain the difference between management accounting techniques and financial accounting 3. 2 Explain the budgetary control process 3. 3 Calculate and interpret variances from budget 3. Evaluate the use of different costing methods for pricing purposes 4. Understand how to evaluate 4. 1 Demonstrate the main methods of project business projects appraisal. 4. 2 Evaluate methods of project appraisal 4. 3 Explain how finance might be obtained for a business project 25  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Indicative Content 1. Understand the requirements and techniques for financial recording and reporting Purpose and requirement for financial records ? Legal requirements ? Tax requirements ? Internal control requirements Financial recording ? Double entry bookkeeping (overview only) Day books and ledgers ? The trial balance ? Manual and computerised systems Requirements for financial reporting ? Financial reporting requirements for sole traders, partnerships, limited companies and public limited companies. ? The financial statements (overview – not required to prepare accounts) – statement of financial position, statement of income, cash flow statement, notes to accounts ? Users/stakeholders ? Usefulness of financial statements 2. Understand how working capital can be effectively managed Working capital components ? Bank and cash balances ? Debtors ? Creditors ? Stock Management of working capital Workin g capital ratios – calculation and evaluation ? Ways to manage working capital – payment and collection cycles, stock control, overdrafts etc. 3. Understand management accounting techniques Management and financial accounts ? Users ? Outputs – information required by managers ? Monthly/quarterly accounts ? Useful ratios Budgetary control ? Purpose and content of budgets ? Cash flow forecasts ? Budgetary control process ? Importance of budgets for management ? Zero based budgeting, incremental budgeting 26  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 ? Advantages and disadvantages of budgets Variances ? Flexing the budget ? Calculating variances ? Explaining variances – financial and non-financial factors ? Reconciliation of budgeted to actual profit ? Advantages and disadvantages of variance analysis Costing and pricing ? Classifying costs – direct/indirect, fixed/variable ? Calculating unit cost ? Dealing with overheads – full absorption costing and overview of other costing methods ? Pricing – cost plus, marginal cost, price takers etc. ? Breakeven – calculation and explanation ? Marginal costing 4. Understand how to evaluate business projects Project appraisal methods ? Accounting rate of return ? Payback Net present value ? Internal rate of return Evaluation ? Strengths and weaknesses of each method ? Non-financial factors – organisational goals and vision, time factors etc. ? Organisational preference Obtaining project finance ? Sources of finance – internal and external ? Making a case for finance ? Providing assura nces and project projections 27  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 5. 4 Research project Unit aims To formulate a research specification on a chosen topic, implement the research project, evaluate and present the research findings. Unit level 5 Unit code K/601/0941 GLH 80 Credit value 0 Unit grading Pass structure Assessment Assignments in accordance with awarding organisation guidance. guidance Learning outcomes. Assessment criteria. The learner will: The learner can: 1 Understand how to formulate a 1. 1 Formulate and record possible research research specification project outline specifications 1. 2 Identify the factors that contribute to the process of research project selection 1. 3 Undertake a critical review of key references 1. 4 Produce a research project specification 1. 5 Provide an appropriate plan and procedures for the agreed research specification 2. Be able to implement the research . 1 Match resources efficiently to the research project wi thin agreed procedures and question or hypothesis to specification 2. 2 Undertake the proposed research investigation in accordance with the agreed specification and procedures 2. 3 Record and collate relevant data where appropriate 3. Be able to evaluate the research 3. 1 Use appropriate research evaluation outcomes techniques 3. 2 Interpret and analyse the results in terms of the original research specification 3. 3 Make recommendations and justify areas for further consideration 4. Be able to present the research 4. 1 Use an agreed format and appropriate utcomes media to present the outcomes of the research to an audience 28  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Indicative Content 1 Understand how to formulate a research specification Formulating the research specification ? Identifying the purposes of the research; having clarity about the outcomes that will be delivered at the end of the research ? Rationale for the choice of the research including skil ls and knowledge to be gained ? Criteria for choice of research ? Consideration of ethical issues ? Methodology for conducting the research e. g. sources of information, primary and secondary Data collection and analysis Creating the research project specification ? Clarify and confirm purposes and outcomes of research ? Statement of the research question ? Identifying what is to be included in the scope of the research and what is to be excluded Planning ? Deciding on specific tasks which need to be completed ? Sequence ? Duration, time and dates ? Key milestones ? Review dates ? Monitoring and review process Aspects for consideration ? Nature of the information e. g. qualitative and quantitative or both, validity and reliability ? Statistical analysis ? Accessing relevant information ? Control of variables Resources 2. Be able to implement the research project within agreed procedures and to specification Implementation ? According to plan (consideration given to modifying plan in the light of monitoring information) ? Adhering to the scope of the research ? Retaining focus on the intended purposes and outcomes of the research ? Monitoring the project including paying attention to resource and time allocation Data collection ? Application and implementation of the stated methods from the plan ? Systematic recording of data and information ? Taking account of bias, validity and reliability of information and control of variables ? Consideration of the sufficiency of the data and information collected 29  © ATHE Ltd 2012 Level 5 Management Specification April 2012 Data analysis ? Qualitative and quantitative ? Identifying trends ? Using software and statistical tables ? Comparison of variables ? Forecasting and extrapolation ? Graphical interpretation 3. Be able to evaluate the research outcomes Evaluation of outcomes ? Consider the research question and specification in the light of data analysed ? Review the successes and difficulties encountered in the project for example o delivering the purposes and outcomes of the project effectiveness of the planning o the methods used, the volume, validity and usefulness of the data ? Reaching conclusions Recommendations and future consideration ? Significance and implications of the conclusions reached ? Application of the findings ? Limitations of and improvements to the research ? Developing recommendations including possible areas for future research or the proces ses used for conducting the research 4. Be able to present the research outcomes Format and media ? Consideration of possible formats linked to the target audience ? Professional delivery of research ? Use of appropriate media 30